Echarts实战案例代码(18):GIS地图中GeoJson、TopoJson、SVG、SHP、JS常见格式相互转化的基础知识

GeoJson格式

GeoJSON是一种对各种地理数据结构进行编码的格式,基于Javascript对象表示法的地理空间信息数据交换格式。GeoJSON对象可以表示几何、特征或者特征集合。GeoJSON支持下面几何类型:点、线、面、多点、多线、多面和几何集合。GeoJSON里的特征包含一个几何对象和其他属性,特征集合表示一系列特征。

{
    "type": "FeatureCollection",
    "features": [{
            "type": "Feature",
            "geometry": {
                "type": "Point",
                "coordinates": [102.0, 0.5]
            },
            "properties": {
                "prop0": "value0"
            }
        }, {
            "type": "Feature",
            "geometry": {
                "type": "LineString",
                "coordinates": [[102.0, 0.0], [103.0, 1.0], [104.0, 0.0], [105.0, 1.0]]
            },
            "properties": {
                "prop0": "value0",
                "prop1": 0.0
            }
        }, {
            "type": "Feature",
            "geometry": {
                "type": "Polygon",
                "coordinates": [[100.0, 0.0], [101.0, 0.0], [101.0, 1.0], [100.0, 1.0], [100.0, 0.0]]
            },
            "properties": {
                "prop0": "value0",
                "prop1": {
                    "this": "that"
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}

TopoJson格式

TopoJSON文件由三部分组成,transform、objects和arcs组成。transform描述了变换参数;
objects描述地理实体包含空间及属性信息;arcs描述了有向弧的空间关系,弧由一系列起点及相对于起点的有向偏移坐标表示。基于这种弧的存储方式可以表达出拓扑关系。由于弧只记录一次及地理坐标使用整数,不使用浮点数,相对于GeoJSON,TopoJSON 消除了冗余,文件大小缩小了 80%。

//这是一个简单的矩形(坐标系:WGS_84)
{
"type":"Topology","arcs":
    [
        [[0,100],[100,0],[0,-100],[-100,0],[0,100]]
    ],
    "transform":
    {
    "scale":
        [0.013833859899784785,0.010558704362081244],
        "translate":
        [117.41920825519742,30.633841626314336]
    },
    "objects":
    {
    "polygon":
        {
        "type":"GeometryCollection",
        "geometries":
            [
                {
                "arcs":[[0]],
                "type":"Polygon",
                "properties":{"Id":0}
                }
            ]
        }
    }
}

Power BI就是用的这种格式!

SVG格式

SVG是一种图像文件格式,它的英文全称为Scalable Vector Graphics,意思为可缩放的矢量图形。它是基于XML(Extensible Markup Language),由World Wide Web Consortium(W3C)联盟进行开发的。严格来说应该是一种开放标准的矢量图形语言,可让你设计激动人心的、高分辨率的Web图形页面。用户可以直接用代码来描绘图像,可以用任何文字处理工具打开SVG图像,通过改变部分代码来使图像具有交互功能,并可以随时插入到HTML中通过浏览器来观看。

<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" style="display: none;">
  <symbol xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 36 34" id="star">
    <path fill="currentColor" d="M19.6859343,0.861782958 L24.8136328,8.05088572 C25.0669318,8.40601432 25.4299179,8.6717536 25.8489524,8.80883508 L34.592052,11.6690221 C35.6704701,12.021812 36.2532905,13.1657829 35.8938178,14.2241526 C35.8056709,14.4836775 35.6647294,14.7229267 35.4795411,14.9273903 L29.901129,21.0864353 C29.5299163,21.4962859 29.3444371,22.0366367 29.3872912,22.5833831 L30.1116131,31.8245163 C30.1987981,32.9368499 29.3506698,33.9079379 28.2172657,33.993502 C27.9437428,34.0141511 27.6687736,33.9809301 27.4085205,33.8957918 L18.6506147,31.0307612 C18.2281197,30.8925477 17.7713439,30.8925477 17.3488489,31.0307612 L8.59094317,33.8957918 C7.51252508,34.2485817 6.34688429,33.6765963 5.98741159,32.6182265 C5.90066055,32.3628116 5.86681029,32.0929542 5.88785051,31.8245163 L6.61217242,22.5833831 C6.65502653,22.0366367 6.46954737,21.4962859 6.09833466,21.0864353 L0.519922484,14.9273903 C-0.235294755,14.0935658 -0.158766688,12.8167745 0.690852706,12.0755971 C0.899189467,11.8938516 1.14297067,11.7555303 1.40741159,11.6690221 L10.1505113,8.80883508 C10.5695458,8.6717536 10.9325319,8.40601432 11.1858308,8.05088572 L16.3135293,0.861782958 C16.9654141,-0.0521682813 18.2488096,-0.274439442 19.1800736,0.365326425 C19.3769294,0.500563797 19.5481352,0.668586713 19.6859343,0.861782958 Z"></path>
  </symbol>
  <path class="shadow" d="M18.7022469,29.7633426 L29.1611722,33.6861584 C28.8859085,33.8576358 28.5650147,33.9672494 28.2172657,33.993502 C27.9437428,34.0141511 27.6687736,33.9809301 27.4085205,33.8957918 L18.6506147,31.0307612 C18.2281197,30.8925477 17.7713439,30.8925477 17.3488489,31.0307612 L8.59094317,33.8957918 C7.98083887,34.0953792 7.34281791,33.9989813 6.83864817,33.6859784 L17.2977531,29.7633426 C17.7505234,29.5935537 18.2494766,29.5935537 18.7022469,29.7633426 Z"></path>
</svg>

SHP格式

shape文件由ESRI开发,一个ESRI(Environmental Systems Research Institute)的shape文件包括一个主文件,一个索引文件,和一个dBASE表。其中主文件的后缀就是.shp

JS格式

JS格式,是为了让geojson直接在本地环境中使用,转为javascript的一种做法。具体见《Echarts实战案例代码(11):利用geojson数据地图map组件生成js本地版直接访问的解决方案》。

Done!

©️2020 CSDN 皮肤主题: 精致技术 设计师: CSDN官方博客 返回首页
实付0元
点击重新获取
扫码支付
钱包余额 0

抵扣说明:

1.余额是钱包充值的虚拟货币,按照1:1的比例进行支付金额的抵扣。
2.余额无法直接购买下载,可以购买VIP、C币套餐、付费专栏及课程。

余额充值